Draft Only - Black History

by Les Booth Aboriginal Embassy Victoria


William Barak

1837
William Barak, at the around 13 years of age, attended, at times the colonial government's Langhornes Mission school 1837 to 1839 at the school site now occupied by the Royal Botanic Gardens.

1837
Villiers, Christiaan de. established Native Police Corps. recruiting all John Batmans Sydney blacks that he had brought over form Hobart, and were present when an agreement was arranged on the banks of the Merri Creek, and the Yarra River. witness by, (William Buckly) and spoke person Elder Woiwurrung and from Boonwurrung tribe

The Native Police were stationed at a reserve (the site of the present-day Dandenong Police Paddocks, about 25 kilometres south-east of Melbourne) between 1837 and 1838 under Villiers, Christiaan de, and later under Henry E P Dana between 1842 and 1852. From 1837 there were several attempts to recruit members of the and people into an Indigenous force of mounted police (troopers). The most successful of these was the Native Police Corps pulled together under command H.E.P. Dana between 1842 and 1853

It's of interest to note, George Augustus Robinson (the peacemaker), with Batman an his crew (sydney blacks) achieved in a very short time what "The Black Line" (1830) costing 30,000 pound and the military could not do, round up or kill any blacks in Van Diemans land. Governor George Arthur gave a parcel of land to Batman for service rendered.

Some of the members of the Native Police, ended up being despised by the people, the government, as now they were pitiful drunk's "mad men" laying is the street, syphilis was remnant in Batmans crew, It may also be of interest to note, Melbourne first census records clearly show, "..(sydney black) Mr Pigeon" address -had been counted in the census.


Watercolour of Melbourne, 1839
by W. Knight

1839
La Trobe, Charles Joseph was appointed Superintendent of the Port Phillip District. As reports of 'outrages' against the Aboriginal population lead to the appointment of, William Lonsdale as the first police magistrate of the Port Phillip District

1842
William Barak, aged 22 in 1842 enlisted in Native Police Corp, (No.19) and remained till 1853, Due public outrage concerning the brutal force used by the Native police... using clubs, ".. pulverising women, children and babies head" this barbaric action forced to disband the Native police Corps Shortly before the Corps was disbanded, the number of Aboriginal troopers was 45, while European members numbered 15 out of the total of 60.

1842
Yuinhup age about 18, often visited the Mt. Franklin Protectorate (E. S. Parker Esq) a number of times a year, but never stayed. He had been born on the Loddon. and held traditional meetings near Hogans bridge at Eddington, When the railway commissioners were planing the Maldon to Laanecoorie railway. Yuinhup petitioned them stating. "I do humbly wish you to compare the title deeds. I had mine from the author of nature, and the land under all your railways is titled by white man's lawyers". Yuinhup received twenty shillings in silver with a promise of more when the rail line was built. It is not known wherher the promise of more was honoured, however, this is the only known government compensation paid for land to the Dja djawurrung people.

1854
"The Legislative Council of the Colony of Victoria did in the year 1854 pass a Bill interlude "An Act to established Constitution in and for the Colony for Victoria" which does not acknowledge the Port Philip Natives.

1858
Thomas Farmer from the Galgalbulluk of the Daj dajwurrang group, being was raised by E. S. Parker Esq. Assistant Protector of Aboriginal's at Mt. Franklin,before a Parliament Select Committee, November 17th 1858, Parker told the Committee, Thomas Farmer, had been given 23 acres of land at Franklinford by the Lient- Governor Mr. La Trobe authorised by Mr. Horne when he held the office of Commissioner of land and Works, (being the first land given back to the original owner), The committee heard, Thomas Farmer had built his home, grew wheat, raised cattle and cultivated the soil, He also regularly attend Divine service every Sabbath. and was married to "Norah" at Jim Crow producing two Children." On being question about the difficulty of the Government giving land to Aborigines, Mr Parker said there would be no difficulty if the Government of the day appropriated Land"


William Barak
Age: mid thirties

1863
William Barak, had taken on schooling and religious studies, his first wife Lizzie, whom died prior to the government gazetted, Coranderrk, (1863) as the permanent site, Where Barak moved in to neat cottage and garden, he worked for a small wage on the station farm and acquired a few horses and carried the little black book, the bible with him. Barak more or less was the Spokesperson for all at Coranderrk, In a publicized Presbyterian ceremony in 1865. He married Annie of the Murray tribe

1864
Thomas Farmer was taken to Coranderrk, as he been removed from his 23 acre farm, Conjointly with another 23 Acre given to Thomas Dunolly. Both being well educated by Mr Chas Judkins and his wife,teachers at the School Franklinford, under the guidance of E. S. Parker Esq. Assistant Protector, Farmer, had built the home for his wife and children, grew wheat, potatoes, raised cattle, and sold his product in Castlimain. Married Norah at Franlinford Jim Crow, had two children, (sadly wife Norah about 20 years of age died at Castemain, later his two children also died.

Corangerrk at first ,was not a very peaceful place for Farmer or Dunolly, both came from E.S. Parker protectorate at Franlinford, as traditional culture-lore and spiritual believes, caused deep unrest within the community. In time Thomas Farmer skills in farming and able to read and write and his Christian up bring prove to be a great beneficial to William Barak and the overall community at that time.

1869
The Aborigines Protection Act 1869 (33 Vic. No. 349) established the Board of Protection of Aborigines, as government agency now played a significant role in the lives and affairs of Indigenous people in Victoria.

1870
Thomas Farmer married his second wife at Coranderrk, as William Brak did not write, he express feeling by way of paintings scenes depicting sacred ceremonies and spiritual stories unique to his people. It has been openly debated Brak art- paintings, confession to his people, as to clean his soul, for his time in Native Police Corp, One such "corrobee" the shows a line of man hand raised (no boomerangs) women in the foreground wailing. In 1887 The Victorian Governor, Sir Henry Locke, asked to see this "corroboree" the Aboriginal Protection Board wouldn't allow it. Instead, the Governor was given one of Barak's paintings of a corroboree, which he accepted. an hung in his office.

1877
Royal Commission on Victoria's Aborigines Saturday, January 29, was established, and on Tuesday, August 1 1877, the Royal Commission on the Aborigines presented its final report to Parliament, the writings of Thomas Farmer,Tommy Dunolly, and others, no doubt would been at the forefront, three years later, (1880) Thomas Farmer died at Coranderrk

Following the 1877 Royal Commission on the Aborigines, the Reverend Frederick Strickland was appointed manager. Swelling unrest since the dismissal of John Green. manger at Coranderrk


Robert Wandin Aged 11
Yarra Yarra Wurundjeri Tribe

1881
The government ordered an inquiry into the management of the station. The following extracts are taken from evidence submitted to the committee. Signed (marked) "William Barak, 30 September 1881
"Would you like the Government to give you all the food you want, and all the clothing, and no work? - If they had everything right and the Government leave us here, give us this ground and let us manage here and get all the money. Why do not the people do it themselves - do what they like, and go on and do the work"

Robert Wandin
This is my evidence:- I have heard in the newspaper that Mr. Capt. Page said that no one ever complained to him about meat. I for one told Mr. Strickland to write to Capt. Page to give us a little more meat while we were digging in the hop paddock. So Mr. Strickland wrote, and he received an answer from Capt. Page, telling him that if I was not satisfied with what I was getting he would send me off the place. - Alick Campbell, X Witnesses - Thomas Dunolly and Bobby Wandon.

1890
Victoria Act repealed the 1869 Act and new wide powers concerning living, working, education and provisioning of Aborigines and 'half-castes' later to cited as "Taking the Children Away" Act.


The Corroboree
Painting by Willaim Barak

1890
Willaim Barak on 7 June, Married his third Sarah (Kurnai) by now his artworks, was the major attraction at Coranderrk during the 1880s. They are now highly prized and exhibited in leading public galleries in Australia.

1892
Yuinhup was found ill by the police at Eddington and taken into Dunolly Hospital, age around 70, he died there on 27th June 1892, Yuinhup, given the English name of Thomas Clark, Yuinhup became a novelty as often attended festivals and openings dress in an old top hat and carrying a banner made of plaster, being the intestines, taken from his family, after using flour given to them by the settlers at that time. Yuinhup was often called King Tommy, and evaded capture many times, it could be said that. that Yuinhup. the last of the Dja Djawrrung to live and die on his tribal land.

1903
William Barak died at Coranderrk, records show that his only direct decedents, three in all, had all died as well as their mother Lizzie, before Coranderrk came into being. Barak is buried at the Coranderrk cemetery.

2005
A. 525-metre footbridge called the 'William Barak bridge' was constructed and In 2006 a permanent sound installation called "Proximities" was installed on the bridge. to


1803 Lieut. Col. David Collins visits Port Philip
, with a view of forming a settlement, he learns that the Dutch have vacated Van Diemans Land, set sail to take possession of such. Convict William Buckley escapes.

1825 Van Diemans land proclaimed a separate colony
from N.S.W. George Arthur Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemans land

1835 In Launceston,
at the corner of Cimitiere and John Street, stood Mr. Connolly's store, a supper party had been arranged by Mr. Connolly's for a number of friends, being J.H.Wedge, W.G. Sams, John Robertson (of Hobart Town) John Sinclair (of Clairville)and John Batman who was then a settler near Avoca. Being made aware of the Terms Agreement It was agreed that Batman should cross the straits and make arrangements for settlement of the agreement a schooner was quickly charted, and John Batman as agent for the company "Port Phillip Association" to obtain from the natives a large tract of land suitable for grazing sheep.

The promoters of the undertaking were John Trice Gelibrand (former Attorney-General) Charles Swanston, M.L.C.,William Bannister (Sheriff), James Simpson (Police Magistrate), Henry Arthur (Collector of Customs), John and William Robertson (Merchants), John Hilder Wedge (surveyor) J.T. Collecat (Post Master), Anthony Cottrell (District Constable), William Gardiner Sams (under Sheriff), Micheal Connolly (Merchant), Major Mercer, John Sinclair (Superintendent of Convicts), and John Batman

1835 12th May Batman Sailed from Launceston
on the, in the Rebecca. a small vessel of fifteen tons. As arranged by Murrengurk,(William Buckley) made his quarters at Indented Head, by using small cannon, summoned Murrengurk, on 3rd June 1835. John Batman, sailed up the Yarra River, on Monday 8th June declared "This will be the place for a Village" Batman's documents refers to presents (payment) of Twenty Pairs of Blankets, Thirty Tomahawks, One Hundred Knives, Fifty Pairs Scissors, Thirty Looking-Glasses, Two Hundred Handkerchiefs, Six Shirts and One Hundred Pounds of Flour, Plus The Yearly rent of Tribute of One hundred Pairs of Blankets, One Hundred Knives, One hundred Tomahawks, Fifty Suits of Clothing, Fifty looking-glasses, Fifty Pairs of Scissors, and Five Tons Flour.

The lease contract covered the tract of land running from the branch of the river at the top of the Port , about 7 miles from the mouth of the river, forty miles North East and from thence South South West , across Mount Vilaumaurnartar to Geelong Harbour, at the head of the same, containing about Five Hundred Thousand more or less Acres.

1835 16th June.a document was signed
on the banks of a creek, by local Native's (William Barak father suggested as being one) and 5 Sydney Aborigine's (belonging to Batman's party) for the letting of land in the Port Philip District to Batman, Overseen by Murrengurk, as certain terms and conditions had been submitted by him, Murrengurk, was to be paid by the Port Phillip Association 50 pound per year as well as rations.

Memorandum, to Batman,
signed by C Swanston, J.T. Gillchard, J.T. Wedge, W.G. Sams, A.Colville, and M. Connolly, "the first point to be attended is to keep up a friendly feeling on their part to the Establishment, and to insure on their part a feeling of confidence; and the next part is to make as useful to the Association as Possible- Much more be done by the force of example through the Sydney Natives"

1835 27th June
Letter from the Port Philip Association to Lord Glenelg. My Lord,We have the honor of enclosing a copy of a report made by Mr Batman to His Excellency Lieutenant Governor Arthur, detailing the result of an expedition conducted at our joint expence to Port Philip on the South western extremity of New Holland for the purpose of effecting a concilliatory intercourse with the native Tribes in that part of the country and afterwards of purchasing from the chiefs upon equitable principles a portion of the Territory for pastoral and agricultural purposes.... Your Lordship's most obedient humble servants.J.H Wedge, John Sinclair, Anthony Cotterell, W.G. Sams,Henry Arthur,Michael Connolly,C. Swanston, J.T. Gellibrand, John Batman, Thomas Bannister, John Collicott, J & W Robertson

1835 25th August, Governor Arthur
(via John Hilder Wedge), sent a written testimonial of thanks to Murrengurk for his services rendered. The next day

1835, 26th August 1835, His Excellency Major General Sir Richard Bourke
, issued a Proclamation however it was ignored by the people of Van Diemens Land, see The Proclamation No 3. 411

1835 30th August
Note that Melbourne Day Committee, states the Fawkner foundered Melbourne as the moored embarked the good ship Enterprise on the banks of the Yarra on this date,

1835 3rd September, J.H. Wedge
wrote to John Batman, stating "that when on his arrival at the encampment, he found Mr. Aitkens, & Mr. Thomson connected to Mr. Fawkner, with in the limits described in our Deeds and they intent to persist in holding possession of our domain" ..I have told them that as we have purchased the land, and in part paid for it" Wedge was greatly concerned that he believed John Batman and his brother Henry, an advocate for using force, or instigating the (Sydney) Natives to molest them, formerly I think would be a bad police, because it would afford the Government a pretext for interfering, & of not confirming our arrangements with the natives"
Wedge was well aware, Batman history when working for Governor Arthur and private businessmen in Van Diemens land, Wedge wrote "Under these circumstances I think it would be well for the proprietors to meet & discuss the proper steps to be taken, as suggested in Wedge letter to Mr.Simpson (3/9/1835) "I think it would be as well to offer them our assistance in negotiating a treaty with the natives"

It is interesting to note that J.H. Wedge explain to Fawkner's mob that they were on Batmans land at that time, it is not clear if Wedge told them on the 30th August or not as his letter batman was 4 days later.

1835 20th September
, Batman, wrote, in reply "I am much annoyed at their conduct, and in short I sent to Connelly last week to take up a small vessel to go down immediately, to move them from our land very quietly to the opposite side of the River" ..I see by the Courier that General Bourke has issued a proclamation this I think only a form and what he was called upon to do"

1836 January, Murrengurk
made it known to Batman the numbers of unauthorized settlers in the south were uprooting and killing the Natives, Murrengurk disturbed by more killings, requested Batman to intervene, June, that year, Batman petitioned for the appointment of a resident police magistrate, In September Governor Bourke acted on Batman's request. A had chosen William Lonsdale, to be first police Magistrate at Port Phillip.

1836 19th February letter
, from J:T: Gellibrand to My Dear Ball, I am just returned from Port Philip where I have been for three weeks surveying every portion of the Company's Lands...I look forward with the greatest anxiety to the accounts from England & I confess that I am sanguine enough to imagine that I can trace the finger of Providence & that we shall be the humble instruments of communicating temporal and eternal happiness to our benighted brethren if we only sow the seed we may expect a blessing upon it & that its effects will extend over the Continent of new Holland"

1836 September 29, William Lonsdale,
in H.M.S. Rattlesnake, anchored near the mouth of the Yarra River, near Gellibrand Point (Williamstown ) with his wife, children, three surveyors. two customs officials, a commissariat, Ensign King with thirty privates of the 4th Regiment, and thirty convicts followed in October, Bourke's instructions conferred on him not only the ordinary jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, but also the general superintendence of the new settlement, the immediate exercise of the authority of the government in accordance with the application laws of England. His salary was 250 pound.

1836 6th October, J.P. Fawkner wrote to Sir Richard Bourke
, claiming "that he had
purchased land from the Aborigines, the same plan adopted by Batman and Company, by presents of clothing, food, and tools of various sorts, He further states "I have kept Four to Twenty Aborigines constantly at my home and have taught them to row my boat".. "I have caused a Youth in my employ to devote his time to learning the native Language which he has very successfully accomplished. The Natives also Hunt and Fish for me, and in order to Impress upon their minds, the great power and kindness of the English, I have at my own cost and charges brought over from Van Diemen's Land, Three natives of the natives, Two of whom, I brought from Launceston to Hobart own, pointing out to them every object likely to give them a good opinion of the white people"

1837 3rd February William Lonsdale wrote to Lord Glenelg,
Secretary of State for the Colonies, "The site of the present settlement which Mr. Fawkner alludes to had been previously chosen by Mr. Batman, but Mr. Fawkner, becoming aware of his plans hastened to commence operation there, and took the other by surprise whilst he was engaged in another part of the bay,".. "A large tract of land I believe was appropriated by Mr. Fawkner." I can not ascertain what was expended on the Blacks by Mr. Fawkner, but I have no doubt he did to some extent as did others, either from a feeling of humanity or to ensure their own safety by making friends with the Blacks".. "There is a lad with Mr. Fawkner who can speak something of the native language and he took Two of the Blacks to Van Diemans land in his schooner and brought them back again since I have been here.

1837 March, Governor Richard Bourke, visited Port Philip
approved the establishment and named Melbourne and Williamstown, had a plan for street's draw up and ordered the first hundred building lots to be measured and offered for sale, The Port Phillip Association were paid 40 Thousand pound, for their work and effort in relinquishing any interest in the contract. A new company was formed and land between Melbourne and Geelong was given in payment.. Soon after Bourke formally resigned his governorship.

1837 21st March, Batman request small land grant
outside town limits, in his letter to Lord Glenelg, it states, "he is a native of this Colony and has resided in Van Diemans Land Fifteen years and beg to refer Your Lordship to the late Lieut-Governor Colonel Arthur for services he rendered to that Government at different periods." .. when employed by that Government to suppress the outrages of the Aborigines upon the settles, and also at other times on private business"... in May 1835 chartered a small vessel and proceeded to this place and after exploring it for some time found the country to be well adapted for all purposes but more particularly for sheep."... "perambulation into the interior opened a friendly intercourse with the Aborigines which feeling exists to this present period"... "to keep up the friendly feeling then existing between him and the natives with supplies and sundry clothing to distribute among any other tribe who might come down and whom he had not met with." From the favorable report he gave to the country he passed over and the treaty he entered into with the natives induced a number of Gentlemen to form themselves into a Company with a view of sending sheep to Port Phillip. Nearly thirty thousand were exported the first year besides horses cattle etc." .. "That forty thousand sheep besides other stock will be imported this season. Feeling the necessity of keeping up the good undertaking , so happily commenced and already established, the vessel was sent back with further supplies with brother , wife and four children to take charge of the establishment and to use all means in his power to protect and conciliate the Aborigines,"

1837 28th April, Sir Richard Bourke
advises against Batman's application for land grant, Lord Glenelg, subsequently rejected Batman's request.

1837 20th July,
a letter was sent by J. P. Fawkner to Lord Glenelg, claims Batman lied to Government, He states "..that he (Batman) is unworthy to receive any rewards or favor, having fabrication of a false statement attempted to deceive His Majesty's Government. "In John Batman letter to His Excellency Colonel George Arthur, dated 25th June 1835, there are many statements made not consistent with truth,... He asserts he surveyed the country, to which assertion I reply that he is too ignorant, and utterly incapable of performing a land survey, he asserts that the Sydney Blacks he brought from Van Diemans Land understand the language of the natives here, this is not the case. He further asserts that the Sydney Blacks did read and translate the deed, by which he purchased the land from the Aborigines, this is also untrue, the Sydney Blacks that he had here cannot to this day read print, much less writing, neither do they understand the said deed, nor do they know enough of the language of the Blacks of Melbourne, to enable them to translate such an instrument." ."I can prove from the Deeds of the Company, and the before mentioned letter several other gross misstatements, and humbly pray, that Your Lordship may be pleased to order an enquiry to be instituted, in order that the truth may be elicited, and imposition frustrated."

1837 William Barak
, at the around 13 years of age, attended, at times the colonial government's Langhornes Mission school 1837 to 1839 at the school site now occupied by the Royal Botanical Gardens.

1837 Villiers, Christiaan de. established
Native Police Corps. recruiting all John Batmans crew (Sydney blacks) that he had brought over from Hobart, and were present when an agreement was arranged on the banks of the Merri Creek, and the Yarra River. witness by, (William Buckly) and spoke person Elder Woiwurrung and from Boonwurrung tribe

The Native Police were stationed at a reserve (the site of the present-day Dandenong
Police Paddocks, about 25 kilometres south-east of Melbourne) between 1837 and 1838 under Villiers, Christiaan de, and later under Henry E P Dana between 1842 and 1852. From 1837 there were several attempts to recruit members of the and people into an Indigenous force of mounted police (troopers). The most successful of these was the Native Police Corps pulled together under command H.E.P. Dana between 1842 and 1853

It's of interest to note, George Augustus Robinson (the peacemaker), with Batman an his crew (sydney blacks) achieved in a very short time what "The Black Line" (1830) costing 30,000 pound and the military could not do, round up or kill any blacks in Van Diemans land. Governor George Arthur gave a parcel of land to Batman for service rendered. Some of the members of the Native Police, ended up being despised by the people, the government, as now they were pitiful drunk's "mad men" laying is the street, syphilis was remnant in Batmans crew, It may also be of interest to note, Melbourne first census records clearly show, "..(sydney black) Mr Pigeon" address- had been counted in the census.

1838 November
, Unfortunately by now the Port Phillip Natives were losing faith in Murrengurk, after a young native woman had been killed within the establishment by Batman's Black's. Murrengurk, had become quite distressed in the manner the Natives were being treated, they were now being disbursed, badly treated, hunted and their sacred fires extinguished.. When arguing with William Lonsdale, he would use English and Native jargon at great length. Murrengurk, continued to protest at the treatment of the Port Phillip Blacks. Murrengurk wild outrage, and threats could be heard though out the settlement, finally led to William Lonsdale ordering him to be escorted to Van Diemans Land, which they did, leaving his family at Port Plillip.

More Friction developed between others civil Officials and Lonsdale, The Surveyors, Robert Russell and Robert Hoddle would not recognize that he had any authority beyond that of a police magistrate. Lonsdale did not answer his public criticism and continued to carry his instruction from Sydney.

1839 October, Charles Joseph La Trobe
arrived in Melbourne, and relieved Londale responsibility as Superintendent of Port Phillip. As reports of 'outrages' against the Aboriginal population lead to the appointment of, William Lonsdale as the first police magistrate of the Port Phillip District

1839 George Augustus Robinson
left Flinders Island for Port Phillip following the recommendations of George Arthur Lieutenant Governor, Robinson he was appointed Chief Protectorate of Aboriginal, in the Port Phillip district he hoped to civilize them and teach them Christian principles.

1839 6th May, John Batman (Bateman) died
, No doubt remembered as being the first persons to obtain an written agreement with the Aboriginals for land use in Australia's History. Born in New South Wales 1801, apprenticed blacksmith in Sydney, at sixteen years of age, gave evidence against his master, which led to his execution for theft, His testimony, was open to question, and caused unrest with in the wider community. In 1821 with his brother Henry, and several NSW natives, moved to Van Diemen's Land.Where as a Grazer contracted to supply the George Arthur government meat stores, John Batman, gained official recognition for public service, by effecting the surrender Matthew Brady and pursuing other wanted men, However, the high point of his services to Lieut-Governor Colonel Arthur Government when employed by that government to suppress the outrages of the Aborigines. Batman, with seven Blacks from Sydney, assisted by George Augustus Robinson, party which included Truganini achieved in just under three years what an army of 5,000 and 30,000 pounds could not, nearly completely eliminating the Aboriginal race from Van Diemen's land, An extraordinary achievement in it own right.

1840 January, J. H.Wedge
original member of the Port Phillip Association, wrote to Lord John Russell suggesting the establishment of deports for the supply of Aborigines, with food and clothing and that Murrengurk, be used as a channel of communication to explain the scheme to them, Wedge' suggestion was rejected.

1840 27th January William Buckley
(Murrengurk) married widower Mrs. Julia Eagers, a small framed lady who's husband was killed by Natives when making his way to Sydney. Now using his English given name, William Buckley, he attended many function and was paid for was well paid

1842 William Barak
, aged 22 in 1842 enlisted in Native Police Corp, (No.19) and remained till 1853, Due public outrage concerning the brutal force used by the Native police... using clubs, ".. pulverising women, children and babies head" this barbaric action forced to disband the Native police Corps Shortly before the Corps was disbanded, the number of Aboriginal troopers was 45, while European members numbered 15 out of the total of 60.

1842 Yuinhup
age about 18, often visited the Mt. Franklin Protectorate (E. S. Parker Esq) a number of times a year, but never stayed. He had been born on the Loddon. and held traditional meetings near Hogans bridge at Eddington, When the railway commissioners were planing the Maldon to Laanecoorie railway. Yuinhup petitioned them stating. "I do humbly wish you to compare the title deeds. I had mine from the author of nature, and the land under all your railways is titled by white man's lawyers". Yuinhup received twenty shillings in silver with a promise of more when the rail line was built. It is not known wherher the promise of more was honoured, however, this is the only known government compensation paid for land to the Dja djawurrung people.

1851 the Population of Victoria now at 77,000

1852, The Victorian executive add 40 pound a year to William Buckley pension
.

1853 John Pascoe Fawkner,
opposing William Buckley (Murrengurk) petition for a pension

1854 "The Legislative Council
of the Colony of Victoria did in the year 1854 pass a Bill interlude "An Act to established Constitution in and for the Colony for Victoria" which does not acknowledge the Port Philip Natives or legal could not acknowledge that the land was occupied, Terra Nullus was in vogue at that time.

1856 William Buckley (Murrengurk) died
, buried in unmarked grave in Tasmania

1858 Thomas Farmer
from the Galgalbulluk of the Daj dajwurrang group, being was raised by E. S. Parker Esq. Assistant Protector of Aboriginal's at Mt. Franklin, before a Parliament Select Committee, November 17th 1858, Parker told the Committee, Thomas Farmer, had been given 23 acres of land at Franklinford by the Lient- Governor Mr. La Trobe authorised by Mr. Horne when he held the office of Commissioner of land and Works, (being the first land given back to the original owner), The committee heard, Thomas Farmer had built his home, grew wheat, raised cattle and cultivated the soil, He also regularly attend Divine service every Sabbath. and was married to "Norah" at Jim Crow producing two Children." On being question about the difficulty of the Government giving land to Aborigines, Mr Parker said there would be no difficulty if the Government of the day appropriated Land"

1858 Ebenezer Mission
, near Lake Hindmarsh. being established by the Moravian missionaries Reverend F.A. Hagenauer and Reverend F.W. Spieseke, after abandoning the Lake Boga mission in 1851

1861 The Victorian Colonial
Government gazetted 1,897 acres as a reserve for the Ebenezer Mission Station reported as having a permanent population of 22 Aboriginal people attending the school and church services and a further 140 coming on site when the Board distributed rations.

1861 The Lake Tyers Mission
Station was established, by the Church of England Mission, The Board eventually placed conditions on the rations they provided, demanding recipients attend church service twice a day – morning and evening, attend school and forgo their lore and cultural practices. while the missionaries were conducting Church services, the local Aboriginal people continued to hold corroborees, This horrified the missionaries, Ebenezer, reported as having a permanent population of 22 Aboriginal, and a further 140 coming on site when the Board distributed rations.

1862 Ramahyuck Mission
was established, by the Reverend F.A. Hagenauer on a site near Maffra, Victoria. It was one of three Aboriginal Missions established by Moravian Missioners in Victoria. The local farming community opposed the mission in this location so it was moved to the Avon River, near Lake Wellington

1863 The Victorian Colonial
Government set aside 2000 acres of land as the Lake Tyers Reserve.

1863 William Barak
, had taken on schooling and religious studies, his first wife Lizzie, whom died prior to the government gazetted, Coranderrk, (1863) as the permanent site, Where Barak moved in to neat cottage and garden, he worked for a small wage on the station farm and acquired a few horses and carried the little black book, the bible with him. Barak more or less was the Spokesperson for all at Coranderrk, In a publicized Presbyterian ceremony in 1865. He married Annie of the Murray tribe

1864 Thomas Farmer
was taken to Coranderrk, as he been removed from his 23 acre farm, Conjointly with another 23 Acre given to Thomas Dunolly. Both being well educated by Mr Chas Judkins and his wife ,teachers at the School Franklinford, under the guidance of E. S. Parker Esq. Assistant Protector, Farmer, had built the home for his wife and children, grew wheat, potatoes, raised cattle, and sold his product in Castlimain. Married Norah at Franlinford Jim Crow, had two children, (sadly wife Norah about 20 years of age died at Castemain, later his two children also died.

Corangerrk at first ,was not a very peaceful place for Farmer or Dunolly, both came from E.S. Parker protectorate at Franlinford, as traditional culture-lore and spiritual believes, caused deep unrest within the community. In time Thomas Farmer skills in farming and able to read and write and his Christian up bring prove to be a great beneficial to William Barak and the overall community at that time. Initially Coranderrk started with a population of around 40 people, by 1865 the population of Coranderrk numbered 105 making it Victoria's largest reserve at the time. Superintendent of Coranderrk, John Green.

1865 Framlingham mission,
at first overseen by the Church of England, Daniel Clarke as the first manager. until, a short later, the Church handed back the Station to the Central Control Board

1867 The Church decided
to take up responsibility for the Station again appointing a missionary as manager. In November the Board decided to close Framlingham and to open a new Station at Lake Condah in partnership with the Church of England Mission. The missionary, Reverend Job Francis, was then sent to Lake Condah.

1869 The Aborigines Protection Act
(33 Vic. No. 349) established the Board of Protection of Aborigines, as government agency now played a significant role in the lives and affairs of Indigenous people in Victoria.

1869 The Victorian Colonial
Government gazetted 2,043 acres of land for the Lake Condah Aboriginal Reserve and the Church of England Mission set up the station under the auspices of the Central Board.

1869 Framlingham
many people refused refused to go to Lake Condah and in April sent a deputation of Billy Livingstone and Tommy Dawson to the Chief Secretary asking that Framlingham be reopened. The Central Board opened Framlingham again in May.

1869 The Victorian Colonial
Government gazetted 2,043 acres of land for the Lake Condah Aboriginal Reserve and the Church of England Mission set up the station under the auspices of the Central Board.

1870 Thomas Farmer
married his second wife at Coranderrk, as William Brak did not write, he express feeling by way of paintings scenes depicting sacred ceremonies and spiritual stories unique to his people. It has been openly debated Brak art- paintings, confession to his people, as to clean his soul, for his time in Native Police Corp, One such "corrobee" the shows a line of man hand raised (no boomerangs) women in the foreground wailing. In 1887 The Victorian Governor, Sir Henry Locke, asked to see this "corroboree" the Aboriginal Protection Board wouldn't allow it. Instead, the Governor was given one of Barak's paintings of a corroboree, which he accepted. an hung in his office.

1875 The new limestone church
consecrated on 1 January and the foundation stone laid by the Reverend Horatio C. Ellerman.

1877 Royal Commission
on Victoria's Aborigines Saturday, January 29, was established, and on Tuesday, August 1 1877, the Royal Commission on the Aborigines presented its final report to Parliament, the writings of Thomas Farmer,Tommy Dunolly, and others, no doubt would been at the forefront, three years later, (1880) Thomas Farmer died at Coranderrk Following the 1877 Royal Commission on the Aborigines, the Reverend Frederick Strickland was appointed manager. Swelling unrest since the dismissal of John Green. manger at Coranderrk

1880 August residents of Lake Condah
James Egan, James Lovitt, George Winter, Sam Mobourn, William Carter, George Egan and Tommy McKallurn. sent a gift oppossum rug made by residents to Captain Page via F.H. Stahle, Manager of Lake Condah,

1881 The government ordered
an inquiry into the management of the station. The following extracts are taken from evidence submitted to the committee. Signed (marked) "William Barak, 30 September 1881
"Would you like the Government to give you all the food you want, and all the clothing, and no work? - If they had everything right and the Government leave us here, give us this ground and let us manage here and get all the money. Why do not the people do it themselves - do what they like, and go on and do the work"

Robert Wandin This is my evidence:- I have heard in the newspaper that Mr. Capt. Page said that no one ever complained to him about meat. I for one told Mr. Strickland to write to Capt. Page to give us a little more meat while we were digging in the hop paddock. So Mr. Strickland wrote, and he received an answer from Capt. Page, telling him that if I was not satisfied with what I was getting he would send me off the place.
- ALICK CAMPBELL, X Witnesses - Thos. Dunolly and Bobby Wandon.

1883 The Lake Condah Mission,
the (bluestone) Church, of St Mary's Church of England, was completed, built by the Aboriginal people of the mission. .

1890 Victoria Act
(repealed the 1869) The following persons shall be deemed to be aboriginals within Victoria who to be (i.) Every aboriginal native of Victoria: Every half-caste who habitually associating and living with an aboriginal within the meaning of this section completed the thirty-fourth year of his or her age prior to the first day of January One thousand eight hundred and eighty-seven: (in.) Every female half-caste who had prior to the date aforesaid been married to an aboriginal within the meaning of this section, and was at the date aforesaid living with such aboriginal: (iv.) Every infant unable to earn his or her own living, the child of an aboriginal within the meaning of this section, living with such aboriginal... (years later cited as "Taking The Children Away: act).

1890 Framlingham
The Colonial Government refused to staff the Station or to provide other assistance such as a teacher, equipment or livestock, on reserved area about 582 acres for the Aboriginal community use, whoever people continued to receive very meager rations.

1890 Willaim Barak
on 7 June, Married his third Sarah (Kurnai) by now his artworks, was the major attraction at Coranderrk during the 1880s . They are now highly prized and exhibited in leading public galleries in Australia.

1892
The number of residents at Ebenezer Mission Station dropped to only 30 people.

1892 Yuinhup was found
ill by the police at Eddington and taken into Dunolly Hospital, age around 70, he died there on 27th June 1892, Yuinhup, given the English name of Thomas Clark, Yuinhup became a novelty as often attended festivals and openings dress in an old top hat and carrying a banner made of plaster, being the intestines, taken from his family, after using flour given to them by the settlers at that time. Yuinhup was often called King Tommy, and evaded capture many times, it could be said that. that Yuinhup. the last of the Dja Djawrrung to live and die on his tribal land.

1900 Ramahyuck residents moved
to Lake Tyers as did those from Lake Condah and Coranderk after these stations were closed.

1900 Ebenezer Mission closed
in October 1900, and handed the land back to the Lands Department. (1904),A number of residents moved to the nearby Antwerp Aboriginal Reserve while other families were forced to move to far away Lake Tyers. The National Trust and the Goolum Goolum Aboriginal Coop. now own the old Ebenezer village area.

1901 The Australian Constitution
enacted, this Act did not give the Australian Parlaiment the power to make laws for peace, order and good government of the Aboriginal people of Australia..

1903 William Barak died
at Coranderrk, records show that his only direct decedents, three in all, had all died as well as their mother Lizzie, before Coranderrk came into being. Barak is buried at the Coranderrk cemetery.

1908 Ramahyuck Mission closed
and the remaining residents were sent to Lake Tyers.

1910 Aborigines Act No. 2255
the Board in addition to any powers conferred upon it with regard respect to half-castes may if it thinks fit and subject to the approval of the half-castes. Considering the deep unrest within the community regarding the 1886 Act, changes were made to allow 'half-castes' access to services and rations provided by the Board at Lake Condah and other Stations.

1913 Lake Condah Mission
became a Government Station. when Station Manager, Reverend Stahle retired

1919 Lake Condah Station closed
by The Board for the Protection of the Aborigines, the majority of the residents moved to Lake Tyers Mission Station, due to Half-Caste' Act (1886) nine others stayed.

1951 The Victorian State Government
handed over nearly all of the Lake Condah Reserve to the Soldier Settlement Commission to give farm lots to soldiers returned from World War Two. This land was not available to Aboriginal returned servicemen and women, from Lake Condah.

1957 The Lake Condah Mission,
St Mary's Church of England, destroyed, with the use of explosives, when the remaining residents of Lake Condah were expelled from the mission site.

1957 Aboriginal Advancement League formed,
headquarters Watt Street Northcote (Melbourne) which is on the traditional lands of the Wurundjeri people.

1967 Referendum,
after this the Federal Government had power to make laws for the Aboriginal people of Australia

1967 Aboriginal Affairs Act
to establish a Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs and for other purposes.

1970 Aboriginal Lands Act
1970 to provide for the Lands reserved for the use of the Aborigines at Framlingham and Lake Tyers to be vested in a Framlingham Aboriginal Trust and a Lake Tyers Aboriginal Trust respectively, to regulate the Affairs of the said Trusts, to amend the Aboriginal Affairs Act 1967, and for other purposes. was enacted 1970 Framlingham Reserve returned by The Victorian Government to the local Aboriginal Community, a strong and influentially community still continues to live there today.

1971, The Government returned
the Lake Tyers Reserve, including 4000 acres, to the local Aboriginal community.

1975 The Victorian Constitution Act No. 8750 1975
, came into being, given the parliament the power to make laws in and for Victoria is all cases whatsoever. This Constitution Act, makes no mention of the Aboriginal race of Victoria, therefore has no standing or meaning to the Aboriginal people of Victoria.

1982 Watt Street, (Northcote) Act
1982 Aborigines' Advancement League (Victoria) was
appointed as the committee of management of that land, (3) The Crown grant is made subject to a condition that the conditions, &c land continue to be used for an Aboriginal Community Centre

1984 Lake Condah
The Victorian Government returned 53 hectares of the original Reserve to the local community.

1989 Aboriginal Land (Northcote Land) Act
The purpose of this Act is to authorise the granting by the Crown of land at Northcote to the Aborigines Advancement League Incorporated and to provide for related matters. {a) the condition that the land continue to be used for Aboriginal cultural and recreational purposes;

1989 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act
1989. (Cwlth)Tumbukka Regional Council is an elected representative body established under the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act 1989. It represents and advocates on behalf of Indigenous Victorians in relation to the provision of services and the implementation of policies and programs that improve the economic, social and cultural well-being of Indigenous people in Victoria.

1989 Binjirru Regional Council
was an elected representative body established under the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act 1989. (Cwlth) It represented and advocated on behalf of Indigenous Victorians in relation to the provision of services and the implementation of policies and programs that improve the economic, social and cultural well-being of Indigenous people in Victoria.

1990 ATSIC Established November
(Cwlth) appointed Lois (Lowitja) O'Donoghue as ATSIC's first Chairperson,

1991 Aboriginals Affairs The Dept
. was formed in 1991? It was absorbed in November 1992 as the Aboriginal Affairs Division ... Victoria.

1991 Aboriginal Lands Act
The purposes of this Act are to— (a) revoke the reservations of certain lands; (b) authorise the granting of that land for Aboriginal cultural and burial purposes; (c) provide for related matters.

1992 Aboriginal Land (Manatunga Land) Act
The purpose of this Act is to authorise the grant by the Crown of land at Robinvale to the Murray Valley Aboriginal Co-operative Limited and to extinguish a Crown lease and any other encumbrances existing over that land.

1992 High Court of Australia in Mabo
v Queensland (No.2) 1992. (Cwlth)

1993 The Native Title Act 1993 (Cwlth) was enacted as a result of the decision made by the High Court of Australia in Mabo v Queensland. The Federal Parliament reviewed and amended the Native Title Act in 1998, 2007 and 2009.

1996 Aboriginal Embassy Victoria
was formed, it's role and duty to maintain sovereignty of the Aboriginal People of Victoria, to uphold the spiritual religious beliefs Lore of the Aboriginal people and to protect the Aboriginal people of Victoria.

1996 Aboriginal Embassy Victoria
March, under common law reclaimed Crown land water ways in Victoria

1996 Scrutiny of Acts and Regulations Committee
, Helen M. Mason Executive Officer, sent letter AEV 26 August, "I am afraid I am not able to be of assistance to you. I am unaware of any Act which gives the Victorian Government the "power to make laws for peace order and good government for indigenous people"

1997 Aboriginal Embassy Victoria
remove Council workers from water ways (Hepburn Pool) with mild force. This being the only site were traditional (Aboriginal) Lore, still applies to day.

2000 Victorian Aboriginal Justice Agreement
: Phase 1 1 January, The aim of the Agreement is to address the ongoing issue of Aboriginal over-representation within all levels of the criminal justice system, improve Aboriginal access to justice-related services and to promote greater awareness in the Aboriginal community of civil, legal and political rights. The Dept. was formed in 1991? It was absorbed in November 1992 as the Aboriginal Affairs Division ... Victoria.

2002
March, The Agreements, Treaties and Negotiated Settlements with Indigenous Peoples. The original aim of the project was to examine treaty and agreement-making with indigenous Australians and the nature of the cultural, social and legal rights encompassed by past, present and potential agreements and treaties. The 2002 project involved researchers from the university of Melbourne Professor Marcia Langton

2002 Magistrates' Court (Koori Court)
Act Cost $52 Million. All defendants must plead guilty, that wish to use this special court.

2003 The Victorian Aboriginal Justice Advisory Committee
(AJAC) is the
Government's primary source of advice from, and involvement with, the Aboriginal community on all issues. AJAC's membership comprises two Aboriginal community nominees and representatives from a range of Government Departments and Aboriginal organisations including from each of the proposed regional AJACs. of local initiatives to address Aboriginal justice issues.'

2005 The Aboriginal Affairs Minster
, Gavin Jennings Media Release 8th JUNE "From July ATSIC regional councils end and there will be no formal representee structure in Victoria for government to hear views of Indigenous people"

2005 ATSIC
30 th June abolished (Cwelth)

2006 Aboriginal Embassy Victoria, Letter 20th February
, To the Premier of Victoria Steve Bracks "Our Peoples Health and Well being" Ever since Europeans occupied our lands alcohol has played a major part in destroying our race.

2006 Victorian Aboriginal Justice Agreement
: June 1st Phase 2 The aim of the AJA has two components:
1. to 'minimise Koori over-representation in the criminal justice system by improving accessibility, utilisation and efficacy of justice-related programs and services in partnership with the Koori community; and'
2. to 'have a Koori community … that has the same access to human, civil and legal rights, living free from racism and discrimination and experiencing the same justice outcomes through the elimination of inequalities in the justice system'

2005 Footbridge of
525-metre called the 'William Barak bridge' was constructed and In 2006 a permanent sound installation called "Proximities" was installed on the bridge.

2005 Binjirru Regional Council
was disbanded.

2008 Aboriginal Embassy Victoria
sent NOTICE (31st January) to Lieutenant Governor, Chief Justice Marilyn Warren, bring to attention the Constitution Act 1975 No. 8750 makes no reference to Aboriginal People of Victoria. and from is date the Constitution Act 1975 Part 11 Division !.16 Has no longer have any meaning or legal standing with the Aboriginal People of Victoria

2008
Aboriginal Embassy Victoria Letter 1st July to Attorney General, Rob Hulls "Re: Courts Jurisdiction" It appears that the Victorian Government has no legislated Act or Power to make Laws for peace, order and good government for the Aboriginal race of Victoria (Two quesions raised)

2008
Aboriginal Embassy Victoria Letter 3rd August to Attorney General, Rob Hulls "Re: Courts Jurisdiction"
Q.1 Has the Victorian Parliament the proper legislated power to make laws for the Aboriginal People of Victoria.
Q.2.If the Courts Jurisdiction is question in the Magistrates Court, should the matter then be transferred to the Supreme Court of Victoria, to address the Jurisdiction issue..

2008 Department of Justice, (Rob Hulls)
to AEV dated 13 August , "You have requested that the Attorney-General clarify the following issues: 1. Has the Victorian Parliament the proper power to make laws for the Aboriginal People of Victoria, considering that the Victorian Constitution Act 1975 does not mention the Aboriginal race of Victoria: and 2. If the Courts jurisdiction is questioned in the Magistrates Court, should thec matter then be transferred to the Supreme Court of Victorai, to address the Jurisdiction issue. ...The matters you raised are legal issues; neither the Attorney-General nor any public servant can provide you with legal advice about your matter"

2010
Traditional Owner Settement Bill Second reading Wednesday 11 August 2010.

2010
Aboriginal Embassy Victoria Letter, 15th September to Governor General Victoria, Professor David de Kretser, A.C. Due to unrest within the Aboriginal communities concerning the Traditional Owner Settlement Bill 2010. I have been requested to ask if you can postpone giving the Royal assent to this bill, it has caused a division amongst the Aboriginal people of Victoria. It is maintained the Victorian Parliament, Government did not consult the wider community and give enough time to consider this Bill. We understand that Parliament can not make laws for some Aboriginal's groups, laws must be made for all Aboriginal's, not just a few selected incorporated groups. Yours faithfully. Beryl Booth, Ambassador, Aboriginal Embassy Victoria

2010 Traditional Owner Settement Bill, 23 September, enacted
The Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010 (Vic), which started out as the Traditional Owner Settlement Bill 2010 (Vic), came into effect on 23 September 2010. This Act provides Victorian native title claimants with an alternative to the settlement framework set out in the Native Title Act 1993 (Cth). It enables the Victorian government to enter into out-of-court 'recognition and settlement agreements' with traditional owner groups, providing a framework for the recognition of traditional owners' native title rights while making allowances for the particular difficulties faced by Victorian claimants in the native title process

2010
Gunaikurnai Native Title Agreement, 30th October The Gunai/Kurnai People have reached an agreement with the Victorian Government that recognises them as the traditional owners of a large part of Gippsland. This is the first agreement of its kind to be reached under the recently enacted Traditional Owners Settlement Act 2010 (Vic). Both the Gunaikurnai Native Title Agreement and the Consent Determination cover the same area: approximately 22,000 square kilometres of land in Gippsland, which comprises nearly one fifth of Crown land in Victoria. The area stretches from west Gippsland near Warragul, east to the Snowy River, and north to the Great Dividing Range

2011 Aboriginal Embassy Victoria Letter dated 17 January to Governor of Victoria, Professor David de Kretser, A.C. I write in regard to my unanswered letter to you of the 15th September 2010, which requested if you can postpone giving the Royal assent to this Bill, which it has caused a division amongst the Aboriginal people of Victoria. As we move to the future, you will be aware as from the 1st January 2010 all photos of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth 11 and any other recognition of Her Majesty be removed from all Courts in Victoria, which gives to question the role of the Governor of Victoria.To maintain our records in good order, as to clarify the situation and remove any doubt whatsoever, I humbly ask, On what date was the Royal assent was affixed to the Traditional Owner Settlemant Bill 2010, If not by yourself, as Governor of Victoria, The name of the person that was authorized to carry out such action, and the date that this action transpired.